Investigating the state of road vehicle emissions in Africa: A case study of Ghana and Rwanda

The estimated economic cost of premature deaths in 2013 from air pollution in Africa was USD 450 billion. The economic cost might become uncontrollable if radical policy changes are not implemented soon. Particulate matter emission is mostly attributed to road transport and power generation worldwide. This paper examines the state and adequacy of fuel and vehicle standards prevalent across the African continent. Experimental emissions tests were conducted on 200 vehicles each in Rwanda and Ghana to ascertain compliance to local and international standards. The result showed that even some new vehicles failed the emission tests while almost all the diesel cars tested in both countries failed the international standard. It was discovered that only five African countries have emission standards, most of which were not being implemented. The results also show that while there are approximately 72 million vehicles in use in Africa, only seven countries are responsible for 70% of greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions from transportation in Africa is growing at a rate of 7% annually. Poor fuel quality, aging vehicle fleet, and lack of mandatory roadworthy emission tests were to blame for the deteriorating transport emissions. More than 50% of African countries have fuel quality worse than European fuel quality predating 1992. The study recommended the UK’s emission standard for the annual in-service emission testing and Euro 4 standards for both fuel and new vehicle standards

Vehicles Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ambient Air Quality Measurement in Addis Ababa City

This study aimed at filling some of the most important data gaps in the transport sector's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution concentration profile of Addis Ababa. The data gaps addressed are annual Vehicle Kilometres Travelled per year (VKT), vehicle fuel economy (kilometres travelled per litre), vehicle pollutant gases and particulate matter (PM) released during tailpipe testing, and ambient air quality measurements. Data was collected through interviewing 406 drivers and tailpipe testing of their 406 vehicles, and through ambient air quality measurements at congested traffic sites. The analysis was carried out by vehicle type, vehicle manufacture year and according to real-time monitoring at sites such as roundabouts, taxi and bus stations. This study showed that PM reduction can be brought about by implementing vehicle standards so as to limit the oldest vehicles from circulating the roads in the city. These standards could bring benefits to both health and the economy